Marie Tharp (1920-2006) was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer who, with Bruce Heezen, created the first scientific map of the entire ocean floor. Tharp’s work revealed the presence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and revolutionized scientific understanding of continental drift.
Heezen collected data for research purposes and Tharp used his information to compile their physiographic diagrams. During this process, she confirmed previous predictions when she made an important discovery: a rift on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tharp’s visual interpretations of the sea-floor data contributed to the reintroduction of continental drift theory and the 1960s geological revolution. At a time when most women were excluded from scientific careers, Tharp, initially a research assistant, succeeded in this competitive arena.
Tharp and Heezen published their first physiographic map of the North Atlantic in 1957. Collaborating with the Austrian landscape painter Heinrich Berann, they published their map of the entire ocean floor in 1977. Although for a time Heezen favored the expanding Earth hypothesis, under Tharp’s direction he turned to the alternative theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.

Marie Tharp (1920-2006) was an American geologist and oceanographic cartographer who, with Bruce Heezen, created the first scientific map of the entire ocean floor. Tharp’s work revealed the presence of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and revolutionized scientific understanding of continental drift.

Heezen collected data for research purposes and Tharp used his information to compile their physiographic diagrams. During this process, she confirmed previous predictions when she made an important discovery: a rift on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tharp’s visual interpretations of the sea-floor data contributed to the reintroduction of continental drift theory and the 1960s geological revolution. At a time when most women were excluded from scientific careers, Tharp, initially a research assistant, succeeded in this competitive arena.

Tharp and Heezen published their first physiographic map of the North Atlantic in 1957. Collaborating with the Austrian landscape painter Heinrich Berann, they published their map of the entire ocean floor in 1977. Although for a time Heezen favored the expanding Earth hypothesis, under Tharp’s direction he turned to the alternative theories of plate tectonics and continental drift.

Today’s Google doodle celebrates the 215th birthday of Mary Anning!
Mary Anning (1799-1847) was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in the Jurassic marine fossil beds at Lyme Regis in Dorset, a county in Southwest England on the coast of the English Channel, where she lived. Her work contributed to fundamental changes that occurred during her lifetime in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth.
Her discoveries included the first ichthyosaur skeleton correctly identified, which she and her brother Joseph found when she was just twelve years old; the first two plesiosaur skeletons found; the first pterosaur skeleton located outside Germany; and important fish fossils. Her observations played a key role in the discovery that coprolites, known as bezoar stones at the time, were fossilized feces. She also discovered that belemnite fossils contained fossilized ink sacs like those of modern cephalopods. When geologist Henry De la Beche painted Duria Antiquior, the first widely circulated pictorial representation of a scene from prehistoric life derived from fossil reconstructions, he based it largely on fossils Anning had found, and sold prints of it for her benefit.
Anning’s gender and social class prevented her from fully participating in the scientific community of 19th-century Britain, dominated as it was by wealthy Anglican gentlemen. She struggled financially for much of her life. Her family was poor, and as religious dissenters, were subject to legal discrimination. The only scientific writing of hers published in her lifetime appeared in the Magazine of Natural History in 1839, an extract from a letter that Anning had written to the magazine’s editor questioning one of its claims.
In 2010, one hundred and sixty-three years after her death, the Royal Society included Anning in a list of the ten British women who have most influenced the history of science.

Today’s Google doodle celebrates the 215th birthday of Mary Anning!

Mary Anning (1799-1847) was a British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for important finds she made in the Jurassic marine fossil beds at Lyme Regis in Dorset, a county in Southwest England on the coast of the English Channel, where she lived. Her work contributed to fundamental changes that occurred during her lifetime in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth.

Her discoveries included the first ichthyosaur skeleton correctly identified, which she and her brother Joseph found when she was just twelve years old; the first two plesiosaur skeletons found; the first pterosaur skeleton located outside Germany; and important fish fossils. Her observations played a key role in the discovery that coprolites, known as bezoar stones at the time, were fossilized feces. She also discovered that belemnite fossils contained fossilized ink sacs like those of modern cephalopods. When geologist Henry De la Beche painted Duria Antiquior, the first widely circulated pictorial representation of a scene from prehistoric life derived from fossil reconstructions, he based it largely on fossils Anning had found, and sold prints of it for her benefit.

Anning’s gender and social class prevented her from fully participating in the scientific community of 19th-century Britain, dominated as it was by wealthy Anglican gentlemen. She struggled financially for much of her life. Her family was poor, and as religious dissenters, were subject to legal discrimination. The only scientific writing of hers published in her lifetime appeared in the Magazine of Natural History in 1839, an extract from a letter that Anning had written to the magazine’s editor questioning one of its claims.

In 2010, one hundred and sixty-three years after her death, the Royal Society included Anning in a list of the ten British women who have most influenced the history of science.

Gerty Theresa Cori (1896 – 1957) was an American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Cori was born in Prague. She was admitted to medical school there, where she met her future husband Carl Ferdinand Cori. After graduation, they married and emigrated to America in 1922. Gerty  continued her early interest in medical research, collaborating in the laboratory with Carl. She published research findings coauthored with her husband, as well as publishing singly. Unlike her husband, she had difficulty securing research positions, and the ones she obtained provided meager pay. Her husband insisted on continuing their collaboration, though he was discouraged from doing so by institutions that employed him.
Gerty and her husband jointly received the Nobel Prize in 1947 for the discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle).
In 1957, Gerty Cori died after a ten-year struggle with myelosclerosis. She remained active in the research laboratory until the end. She received recognition for her achievements through multiple awards and honors. The Cori crater on the Moon and the Cori crater on Venus are named after her.

Gerty Theresa Cori (1896 – 1957) was an American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Cori was born in Prague. She was admitted to medical school there, where she met her future husband Carl Ferdinand Cori. After graduation, they married and emigrated to America in 1922. Gerty  continued her early interest in medical research, collaborating in the laboratory with Carl. She published research findings coauthored with her husband, as well as publishing singly. Unlike her husband, she had difficulty securing research positions, and the ones she obtained provided meager pay. Her husband insisted on continuing their collaboration, though he was discouraged from doing so by institutions that employed him.

Gerty and her husband jointly received the Nobel Prize in 1947 for the discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and then resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy (known as the Cori cycle).

In 1957, Gerty Cori died after a ten-year struggle with myelosclerosis. She remained active in the research laboratory until the end. She received recognition for her achievements through multiple awards and honors. The Cori crater on the Moon and the Cori crater on Venus are named after her.

cenwatchglass:

Nobel Laureate Hodgkin demonstrates the structure of vitamin B12 with a model.
Today’s Google doodle celebrates the 104th anniversary of the birth of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Nobel laureate in chemistry. Here’s C&EN’s coverage of her Nobel win in 1964:
From the basement of a museum to the highest honor in chemistry is the road traveled by the third woman (and the first Englishwoman) to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She is 54-year-old Dr. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Wolfson Research Professor of the Royal Society and Professorial Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. She has been cited for her work in determining the structures of biochemical substances, notably vitamin B12 and penicillin, by x-ray techniques.
Dr. Hodgkin’s vitamin B12 work is considered a classic among structural determinations. Her work with the substance covered an eight-year span, mostly during the 1950’s. The structure is one that hadn’t been previously encountered in nature. It is more complex than any which, up to that time, had been solved by x-ray analysis.
Nobel Prize Given for Vitamin B12 Studies: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin honored for determining structure by x-ray techniques; U.S. and U.S.S.R. share physics prize
Chemical & Engineering News, November 9, 1964

cenwatchglass:

Nobel Laureate Hodgkin demonstrates the structure of vitamin B12 with a model.

Today’s Google doodle celebrates the 104th anniversary of the birth of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Nobel laureate in chemistry. Here’s C&EN’s coverage of her Nobel win in 1964:

From the basement of a museum to the highest honor in chemistry is the road traveled by the third woman (and the first Englishwoman) to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. She is 54-year-old Dr. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Wolfson Research Professor of the Royal Society and Professorial Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. She has been cited for her work in determining the structures of biochemical substances, notably vitamin B12 and penicillin, by x-ray techniques.

Dr. Hodgkin’s vitamin B12 work is considered a classic among structural determinations. Her work with the substance covered an eight-year span, mostly during the 1950’s. The structure is one that hadn’t been previously encountered in nature. It is more complex than any which, up to that time, had been solved by x-ray analysis.

Nobel Prize Given for Vitamin B12 Studies: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin honored for determining structure by x-ray techniques; U.S. and U.S.S.R. share physics prize

Chemical & Engineering News, November 9, 1964

Reblogged from cenwatchglass

This is a 1946 photo of the Chicago pile team with Leona Woods, the sole woman on the team.
Leona Woods (1919-1986) was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.
At age 23, she was the youngest and only female member of the team  which built and experimented with the world’s first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1 (part of the Manhattan Project), in a project led by her mentor Enrico Fermi. In particular, Woods was instrumental in the construction and then utilization of geiger counters for analysis during experimentation. She was the only woman present when the reactor went critical.
After the war, she became a fellow at Fermi’s Institute for Nuclear Studies. She later worked at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and New York University, where she became a professor in 1962. Her research involved high-energy physics, astrophysics and cosmology.  She later became a professor at the University of Colorado, and a staff member at RAND Corporation. In later life she became interested in ecological and environmental issues, and she devised a method of using the isotope ratios in tree rings to study climate change. She was a strong advocate of food irradiation as a means of killing harmful bacteria.
She also graduated from high school at age 14, and received her BS in chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1938, at the age of 19.
When asked years later about her involvement with the Manhattan Project, she said: “I have no regrets. I think we did right, and we couldn’t have done it differently. Yeah. I know it has been suggested the second bomb, Nagasaki, was not necessary. The guys who cry on shoulders, when you are in a war, to the death, I don’t think you stand around and ask, “Is it right?”

This is a 1946 photo of the Chicago pile team with Leona Woods, the sole woman on the team.

Leona Woods (1919-1986) was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.

At age 23, she was the youngest and only female member of the team  which built and experimented with the world’s first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-1 (part of the Manhattan Project), in a project led by her mentor Enrico Fermi. In particular, Woods was instrumental in the construction and then utilization of geiger counters for analysis during experimentation. She was the only woman present when the reactor went critical.

After the war, she became a fellow at Fermi’s Institute for Nuclear Studies. She later worked at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and New York University, where she became a professor in 1962. Her research involved high-energy physics, astrophysics and cosmology.  She later became a professor at the University of Colorado, and a staff member at RAND Corporation. In later life she became interested in ecological and environmental issues, and she devised a method of using the isotope ratios in tree rings to study climate change. She was a strong advocate of food irradiation as a means of killing harmful bacteria.

She also graduated from high school at age 14, and received her BS in chemistry from the University of Chicago in 1938, at the age of 19.

When asked years later about her involvement with the Manhattan Project, she said: “I have no regrets. I think we did right, and we couldn’t have done it differently. Yeah. I know it has been suggested the second bomb, Nagasaki, was not necessary. The guys who cry on shoulders, when you are in a war, to the death, I don’t think you stand around and ask, “Is it right?”

dendroica:


Rachel Carson
Though she did not set out to do so, Carson influenced the environmental movement as no one had since the 19th century’s most celebrated hermit, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about Walden Pond. “Silent Spring” presents a view of nature compromised by synthetic pesticides, especially DDT. Once these pesticides entered the biosphere, Carson argued, they not only killed bugs but also made their way up the food chain to threaten bird and fish populations and could eventually sicken children. Much of the data and case studies that Carson drew from weren’t new; the scientific community had known of these findings for some time, but Carson was the first to put them all together for the general public and to draw stark and far-reaching conclusions. In doing so, Carson, the citizen-scientist, spawned a revolution.
“Silent Spring,” which has sold more than two million copies, made a powerful case for the idea that if humankind poisoned nature, nature would in turn poison humankind. “Our heedless and destructive acts enter into the vast cycles of the earth and in time return to bring hazard to ourselves,” she told the subcommittee. We still see the effects of unfettered human intervention through Carson’s eyes: she popularized modern ecology.
If anything, environmental issues have grown larger — and more urgent — since Carson’s day. Yet no single work has had the impact of “Silent Spring.” It is not that we lack eloquent and impassioned environmental advocates with the capacity to reach a broad audience on issues like climate change. Bill McKibben was the first to make a compelling case, in 1989, for the crisis of global warming in “The End of Nature.” Elizabeth Kolbert followed with “Field Notes From a Catastrophe.” Al Gore sounded the alarm with “An Inconvenient Truth,” and was awarded the Nobel Prize. They are widely considered responsible for shaping our view of global warming, but none was able to galvanize a nation into demanding concrete change in quite the way that Carson did.

(via How ‘Silent Spring’ Ignited the Environmental Movement - NYTimes.com)
Silent Spring was published on September 27, 1962 — 50 years ago today.

Reblogging for the 50th anniversary of her death today, April 14, 1964.

dendroica:

Rachel Carson

Though she did not set out to do so, Carson influenced the environmental movement as no one had since the 19th century’s most celebrated hermit, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about Walden Pond. “Silent Spring” presents a view of nature compromised by synthetic pesticides, especially DDT. Once these pesticides entered the biosphere, Carson argued, they not only killed bugs but also made their way up the food chain to threaten bird and fish populations and could eventually sicken children. Much of the data and case studies that Carson drew from weren’t new; the scientific community had known of these findings for some time, but Carson was the first to put them all together for the general public and to draw stark and far-reaching conclusions. In doing so, Carson, the citizen-scientist, spawned a revolution.

“Silent Spring,” which has sold more than two million copies, made a powerful case for the idea that if humankind poisoned nature, nature would in turn poison humankind. “Our heedless and destructive acts enter into the vast cycles of the earth and in time return to bring hazard to ourselves,” she told the subcommittee. We still see the effects of unfettered human intervention through Carson’s eyes: she popularized modern ecology.

If anything, environmental issues have grown larger — and more urgent — since Carson’s day. Yet no single work has had the impact of “Silent Spring.” It is not that we lack eloquent and impassioned environmental advocates with the capacity to reach a broad audience on issues like climate change. Bill McKibben was the first to make a compelling case, in 1989, for the crisis of global warming in “The End of Nature.” Elizabeth Kolbert followed with “Field Notes From a Catastrophe.” Al Gore sounded the alarm with “An Inconvenient Truth,” and was awarded the Nobel Prize. They are widely considered responsible for shaping our view of global warming, but none was able to galvanize a nation into demanding concrete change in quite the way that Carson did.

(via How ‘Silent Spring’ Ignited the Environmental Movement - NYTimes.com)

Silent Spring was published on September 27, 1962 — 50 years ago today.

Reblogging for the 50th anniversary of her death today, April 14, 1964.

Reblogged from sciencechicks

girlinalabcoat:

Let’s play a game of Where’s the Woman…
Pictured above is the MIT Chemistry Lab staff at the turn of the 20th century, where Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards sits among her male peers. She was a trailblazer for women in the sciences - her ‘firsts’ include:First woman admitted to MIT,
First woman professor at MIT,
First woman accepted to a science and tech university in America,
First woman to earn a chemistry degree (Vassar).
I highly recommend pursuing her Wikipedia article, she is a very inspiring woman in science!
(h/t to +MIT)

girlinalabcoat:

Let’s play a game of Where’s the Woman…

Pictured above is the MIT Chemistry Lab staff at the turn of the 20th century, where Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards sits among her male peers. She was a trailblazer for women in the sciences - her ‘firsts’ include:

First woman admitted to MIT,

First woman professor at MIT,

First woman accepted to a science and tech university in America,

First woman to earn a chemistry degree (Vassar).

I highly recommend pursuing her Wikipedia article, she is a very inspiring woman in science!

(h/t to +MIT)

Reblogged from girlinalabcoat